Some Tips on Evaluating Literary Contests

Posted by Victoria Strauss for Writer Beware

Since I so often get questions about the legitimacy of literary contests (see, for instance, my posts of December 16 and December 7), I thought it would be helpful to post some suggestions for evaluating any contests you may be thinking of entering.

Who’s conducting the contest? If it’s an organization, magazine, or publisher you don’t recognize, be sure to verify its legitimacy. If you can’t confirm this to your satisfaction–or if the contest doesn’t name its staff or sponsors–don’t enter.

You may have to do some digging–for instance, this contest, which on the surface looked like a collaboration between a writers’ magazine and a publisher, turned out on closer inspection to be one writer attempting to promote his self-publishing endeavor. Or this one, which appeared to have several sponsors but was actually all the same (less than reputable) company.

Be especially wary of contests that spam you, or are nothing but a webpage with an entry form, or are announced on Craigslist, or appear in the form of an ad in the back pages of writers’ magazines or an announcement in a national newspaper supplement (these are usually vanity anthology companies).

Is the contest free? If so, you probably have nothing to lose by entering–though be sure to read the fine print. If you’re a poet, be aware that a “free” contest is one of the major warning signs of a vanity anthology scheme.

Is there an entry fee? Contrary to popular belief, an entry fee does not indicate a questionable contest. Many legitimate contests charge a fee to cover processing expenses (which sometimes include an honorarium to readers) and to fund the prize.

However, entry fees should be appropriate. Excessive entry fees can be a sign of a profit-making scheme. For book manuscripts, stories, or poems, between $5 and $25 is typical. Larger contests may charge more–the IPPY Awards, for instance, charges $75–but anything over $40 should prompt you to do some careful checking, especially if you aren’t familiar with the contest organizer.

By entering, do you get the “opportunity” to spend more money? If you’re encouraged to buy additional services when you enter–critiques, marketability analyses, tickets for an awards banquet–it may be a sign that the contest is a moneymaking venture, rather than a real competition. Some contests are no more than fronts for selling services or merchandise. For instance, this one, which requires contestants to buy a coaching package. Or this one, which peddles paid critique services to entrants. Or this one, where winners must buy their own trophies.

How often does the organization conduct contests? Excessive frequency–running a contest every month (as this writers’ magazine does), or bunches of contests every quarter–can also be a sign of a moneymaking scheme.

How many categories are there? Reputable contests typically have a specific focus, and limit the number of categories under which you can submit. For instance, a contest may be for screenplays only or for book manuscripts only. A contest for fiction may have separate categories for books, poetry, and short fiction, or be broken down by genre.

The point is that a reputable contest shouldn’t feel like the kitchen sink. Be careful of contests that call for any and all talent, especially if everything is lumped together under a single prize (how can a novel manuscript compete with a short story or a screenplay?). Watch out for contests that have dozens of separate categories (like this one, which has well over 100). Again, the contest sponsor may be trying to make a profit from entry fees.

Are the contest guidelines clearly stated? A legitimate contest will provide clear rules, including information about contest categories, deadlines, eligibility, format, fees, prizes and the circumstances in which they will or will not be awarded, judging, and any rights you may be surrendering. If you can’t find these, don’t enter.

Who’ll be doing the judging? It’s in a contest’s interest to name its judges, since the caliber of the judges speaks directly to the contest’s prestige (or lack of it). This is important information for you as well, since a contest with a judging panel of successful writers and/or industry professionals is much more likely to be a good addition to your writing resume if you win.

Some contests prefer to protect judges’ privacy, so a contest that doesn’t name its judges isn’t necessarily illegitimate–as long as you’re confident of the reputability of the contest sponsor. If you aren’t, be wary. No-name judges may be under-qualified, or the contest’s own staff may be doing the judging–or, in the case of a contest that’s a moneymaking scheme, the judges may merely be a fiction.

For contests that are wholly or partly judged by crowdsourcing (for instance, reader votes may advance entrants through initial rounds, with only the finalists actually considered by judges), be aware that this is a capricious process that is vulnerable to cheating.

Are there fringe benefits? Critiques, general feedback on your entry, or meetings with industry professionals are often a worthwhile feature of the more high-profile contests. However, you should never be asked to pay extra for this perk. Also, be sure that the professionals really are professionals. A legitimate contest should clearly state their names and credentials.

What’s the prize? There are many possibilities–money, goods, services, even publication. Prizes should be clearly described in the contest guidelines (watch out for contests that allow the contest sponsors to substitute prizes–you may not get what you expect), and they should be appropriate to the contest sponsor. Unless you’re certain of the sponsor’s legitimacy, contests with very large prize amounts–$5,000 and up–should be treated with suspicion, since they may be moneymaking schemes. (Such contests, which tend to have higher-than-average entry fees, often have fine print that pro-rate the prize amount according to the number of entrants–i.e., as the number of entrants falls, so do the prize amounts, with the downsteps carefully calculated to preserve a profit for the contest sponsor.)

Contests that offer representation, publication, or production as prizes are very appealing. Winning can be a genuine springboard for a writer’s career–as with the Delacorte Press Contest for a First Young Adult Novel. Be sure, though, that it’s a prize you really want to win. Always research the agency, publisher, magazine, or production company to make sure it’s reputable, and don’t enter a contest whose rules make it impossible for you to refuse the prize if you win. If publication is involved, be sure that you know exactly where and how you’ll be published–magazine contest prizewinners are sometimes published in a separate booklet available only by special order. If you’re looking for exposure, that’s not the way to get it.

There should never be an extra cost associated with a prize. If there is, it’s almost certain the contest is a fake.

Have you read the fine print? Always read the contest rules and guidelines carefully before you submit, so you can be sure exactly what you’re getting into. Odd and unpleasant things are sometimes lurking deep in the fine print.

For instance, you may be asked to provide inappropriate personal information. Or just by entering, you may be granting rights to the contest organization, such as first publication or the right to sell your entry elsewhere. Winning may impose obligations–for instance, you may be required to use the contest sponsor as your agent, or agree to publication as a condition of winning (beware of offers you can’t refuse, especially if you can’t view the contract beforehand). A condition of winning may be giving up copyright, which means the organization holding the contest could use your entry for any purpose it wishes (even without your name). The sponsor may reserve the right to substitute prizes, or to reduce or eliminate prizes if certain conditions aren’t met. Watch out for language suggesting that the contest sponsor can use your entry for purposes other than publicity. And if you enter a contest online, be aware that you may be giving permission for your entry to be published at the company’s website, whether you win or not (a frequent complaint about the now-defunct vanity anthology company

Is it worth it? I’ve left this till last, but in many ways it’s the most important question of all. Many writers see contests as a possible springboard to success–a way to bulk up their writing resumes, or get a toehold in the industry. However, for novelists, poets, and short fiction writers, few literary contests have that kind of cachet. A contest will impress an agent or editor only if s/he recognizes it, and a string of obscure contest wins will not strengthen your query letter. Screenwriters have more options–but even in the film world, reputable contests are greatly outnumbered by pointless, useless, or deceptive ones.

Remember also that submitting to a contest can take your work off the market for weeks or months, since many contests don’t allow simultaneous submissions. Also, depending on the contest, your chances of success may actually be a good deal slimmer than if you simply approached agents or publishers in the conventional way (assuming your manuscript is marketable). The mammoth Amazon Breakthrough Novel contest, for instance, which offers publication as the prize, allows up to 10,000 entrants, of whom only two can win.

Finally, even your best efforts at due diligence may not keep you out of trouble. The problems with the contests run by small publisher Zoo Press provide a cautionary example.

Bottom line: thoroughly research any contest you’re thinking of entering, always read the fine print–and consider whether your time and energy might not be better spent actually submitting for publication. That’s the real prize, after all.


  1. Two Anonymous posters before me: I once took part in a contest back in 2001 and never received a reply. I think the people who ran it just didn't have the expertise. It was a now long-defunct small British website called Sell Your Book ( and they made a big deal out of the fact that a well-known writer would help them judge it. I personally had never heard of him but they were pretty enamoured. Anyway, they seemed to think that just having the site online would automatically generate traffic. I never heard from them again and when I remembered it one day I found that the site had been closed. They started out by charging a fee to put people's books online and even appeared in a Scottish newspaper as a burgeoning talent. Then they did away with the fees, but even then did not generate interest. It was more down to lack of experience than avarice. Not everyone out that has bad intentions.

  2. Anonymous 9am hit the nail on the head. I'm sick to the teeth of these people with their "personal problems", sometimes expressed as "personal issues". Using personal problems is the most unprofessional way of running a business. I work and, like the rest of humanity, have personal problems. But I don't use them as a free ticket to rip people off and behave dishonestly, as seems to be common occurrence with "entrepreneurs" exposed on this blog. It's funny that their personal problems, no matter how serious, never prevent them from receiving fees. The "problems" only appear after the money has been raked in.

  3. Warning. Don't run a contest. If you do, within a short time your parents will die, your town will be hit by floods or volcano eruptions and everything in your life will go wrong, leaving you stricken with "personal problems" and forcing you to abandon your work for months on end. Despite all the fees you charge and receive up front and the fact that you never pay out any of the prize money or honor your commitments, you will be forced to plough tens of thousands of dollars of your own money into the business, and you will never have a clue where it all goes.The same rules apply if you are opening a vanity publishing company or small press that offers an array of fee-charing services. And your dog will die too, sending you into a depression that will last for years, during which you won't be able to do a stroke of work. You will want everyone to be sympathetic and understand that while the rest of the world can go back to work, you simply can't. That dog meant everything to you. And what's the rush with these writers, all wanting prize money and royalties… you're trying to run a business here, but they just won't cut you any slack…

  4. I read that link about Zoo Press and all I can say is "Holy Sht!"

    I do enter contests, but they have been ones run by the various literary journals that are out there. I don't deviate much from them and for the most part, I've had a decent experience with them.

  5. Great post today. Thanks very much. This is very useful. As Rena said, it is difficult to find out which is what out there sometimes.

    Thanks again.

  6. Thanks for posting this. There is so much questionable stuff out there that it's hard to make heads or tails of it.

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